In my 2011 book, _Passion of the Christ or Passion of Osiris: The Kongo Origins of the Jesus Myth_, I first introduced  the suggestion that the word /anx/ “Ankh” in ancient Egyptian was probably pronounced something like /nganga/ found in common Bantu (Niger-Congo) languages. This was based on linguistics in part, but more so based on a comparative cultural analysis. My recent discovery in November of 2012 that the hieroglyph, transliterated as /a/ in modern Egyptological discourses, was actually a /k/ sound, allows me now to reexamine some of my earlier analyses with fresh insights.I can say that my 2011 (2010) hypothesis is on more solid grounds and has major implications for the world of Kemetology.



In Imhotep (2011: 92), I reinterpreted and revocalized the word /anx/ “life personified, the name of a god” (Budge 125a) as /nganga/ “a master, doer, a true knower, a specialist, teacher, priest, healer, a power figure” based off interpretations of the word nganga by Dr. K. Bunseki Fu-Kiau, in his seminal work: _African Cosmology of the Bantu Kongo (2001)_. The /a/ sound, again, is /k/ and would give us /knx/. In Kikongo, the nasalization of the velar /k/ morphed the voiceless sound into the voiced /g/, thus /nganga/.


The /nganga/ are “medicine men” (doctors) of all types. This is interesting for us because the word /anx/ in Egyptian is also associated with certain types of “plants.” Plants are medicine in the indigenous world. The word /anx/ is present in the word /xt n anx/ (a type of plant) “embodiment of food, staff of life, tree of life.” In reality, trees are life: in terms of oxygen and food. It is also in the phrases /a n anx/ “sustenance,” /Hn anxw/ “a plant” and the word /anx/ “garland” (wreath). The consonant cluster a-n-x, in these cases, is in association with essences that define and sustain “life” here on earth.


With that said, in ciLuba-Bantu we have /anga > BuAnga/MaAnga/ “medicine, remedy” > “that which protects and cares for/nurses life.” This root is present in the variations /KoOnga, Kongo, KaAnga/. In other words, the word /kongo/ deals with “medicine” (the forests, trees, plants). This has major implications for interpretations of certain ancient ciKam (Egyptian) motifs. For instance, in Imhotep (2011: 90) I suggested that the Ipet Isut temple was an Egyptian recreation of ancient Kongo (the forests). When one goes into the temple, one sees these large pillars that are designed to look like big trees. The temples were schools that trained “priests.”


Temple of Karnak

Temple of Karnak


In Central and West Africa, the “priests” are trained in the forest or the bush (for those in savannah areas). These locations did not need elaborate stone temples because they lived in the “real” temple of nature. Egypt, located in the desert, did not have the luxury of living in the forested areas. Therefore, they recreated the old houses of initiations to look like forests. These places of higher learning in ancient ciKam (Egypt) were called /pr anx/ “house of life” (the name of a college of priests) (Budge 124b); (Temple scriptorium, school). I have reinterpreted /pr anx/ as “wisdom center for the development of masters (priests/nganga) (Imhotep, 2011: 105).


/pr anx/ "Houe of Life"

/pr anx/ "Houe of Life"


This same institution still exists in modern Kongo/Zaire. As Fu-Kiau (2003: 2) informs us, these are the primary educational institutes of traditional Kongo:


Ku Kanga – site of initiation (lit. “the institute that folds/ties and unfolds/unties principles of knowledge)

Ku Londe – The High “Site” (of knowledge in the physical world)

Ku Kongo – lit. “present/yes”; Institute of the called ones

Sansulu bia Zingu – Institutes for Life Budulu bia Meso – Eye Enlightening Institutes

Ghandusulu – Initiation or Training Institutes

Tambukusulu bia N’kingu mia Zingu – Life Principles Transferring Institute


Mbwiti initiate in the Ituri forests

Mbwiti initiate in the Ituri forests


Notice the words KANGA, KONGO, and ZINGU. These are variations of the word /anx/ in ancient tshiKam. The Egyptian /pr anx/ is the Kongo /Ku Kanga/ “site of initiation.” Another variation is /Ku Kongo/ “institute of the called ones.” The Egyptian word /pr/ “house” and Bantu /ku/ “location” both denote a “place.” These words are important because as we mentioned earlier, /anx/ is really /knx/; therefore, /knk/ = /kanga/ = /kongo/. The /k/ > /z/ (or /s/) as well in Kikongo; therefore, /anx/ “life” = /zingu/ “life” (Kikongo).


Again, we can verify the /a/ = /k/ in the very word /anx/ by the fact that the /anx/ symbol is that of the “thorax” complex of the human body (as discussed in Imhotep 2011, 2013). The vertical part of the thorax is called the “sternum” and this word in ciLuba-Bantu is /nkonko/ “sternum, ring/coil/link, collar.” The thorax is what links the head to the rest of the body. It is the center of the body and the meeting place of all organs. The word for “thorax” in Egyptian is /Sna/ “thorax, breast.” In ciLuba we have /-senga/ “to cross, join together, gather, mix”; /di-/ma-Sanga/ “crossroads, confluence, junction, joint, node”; /ma-Sang(u,o)/ “interval between the shoulders; junction point of two shoulders or two arms” =nTangani/diTung(u,a) – a-mapa/nakaya/mapwapwa. The thorax includes the sternum, as well as the collar bones. The collar bone is what gives the /anx/ symbol its horizontal bar under the “loop” (which is the circular bone that first surrounds the neck region).


/anx/ "Nganga" or "Nkonko"

/anx/ "Nganga" or "Nkonko"


This evidence is indirectly informing us that the Egyptians held on to their ancestral memory which informed them of their original home of initiations: the KONGO (pr anx; ku kongo). The word KONGO is associated with the forests and is also a word for “God” in the Kongo area: Kongo = God; Bundu dia Kongo = together of god; Muana Kongo = son of god;Bena Kongo = from God (Egyptian anx/ “life personified, the name of a god” (Budge 125a)). The forest is also considered the ancestral realm and the home of spirits of those yet to be born awaiting their carnations on earth [ciLuba nyInka "Ancestor, grandfather" =Kaku NkambwaNkoko]. Thus, in Egypt these “schools” also doubled as “temples,” or places to commune with spirit.


In summary, a more realistic pronunciation of /anx/ would be /nkonko/ “the symbol” or /nganga/ “the priests for which the symbol represents.” The /nganga/ were schooled in the /pr anx/, which in modern times is called /ku kanga/ or /ku kongo/. The Kongo is the possible home of modern man, if studies of the connection to the bonobo apes pan out (human’s closest kin found exclusively in the Kongo forests).



FU-KIAU, K. Bunseki. (2001). African Cosmology of the Bantu Kongo: Principles of Life and Living. Athelia Henrietta Press.

FU-KIAU, K. Bunseki. (2003). Self-Healing Power and Therapy: Old Teachings from Africa. Inprint Editions

IMHOTEP, Asar. (2011). Passion of the Christ or Passion of Osiris: The Kongo Origins of the Jesus Myth. MOCHA-Versity Press. Houston, TX.

IMHOTEP, Asar. (2013). Aaluja: Rescue, Reinterpretation and the Restoration of Major Ancient Egyptian Themes, Vol. I. MOCHA-Versity Press. Houston, TX.

IMHOTEP, Asar. (2012). "Egypt In Its African Context Note 3: Towards A Method for Vocalizing Mdw Ntr Symbols."

NSAPO, Kalamba and Bilolo, Mubabinge. (2009). Renaissance of the Negro-African Theology: Essays in Honor of Professor. Bimwenyi-Kweshi. Academy of African Thought. Munich, Freising, Kinshasa.

VYGUS, Mark. (2012). Ancient Egyptian Dictionary.


CiLuba Dictionary

The Beinlich Egyptian-German Wordlist